Evaluating Inspectors

Key Characteristics of a Great Inspector

64-1First, an inspector does not become great until they have experience. Experience comes from ‘hands on’ inspections. Classroom training is important, but until you have inspected at least 250 homes you would not have the judgement to distinguish a big problem from a small problem.

Second, successful home inspectors are professional. Your first contact with an inspector will come from either a website or a phone conversation. A quality home inspector will have both a professional, easy to navigate interactive website and an experienced personable support person able to answer your questions. Professional inspectors use the same consistent care from start to finish; they understand that at every touch point the customer will judge the quality of their service.

Third, the best inspectors have communication skills. A home inspection is an experience and making it pleasant is the key to a great inspection. Home buyers and sellers are anxious and excited; a cool, calm, matter of fact inspector is best suited to be fair and balanced with any problems that are discovered.

Don’t settle for anything less than the best.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Should We Stay or Should We Go

Our dreams are our dreams.

Countless times I’ve seen family and friends looking for a better place to live. Whether it be a different house or a different location, the grass always seems to be greener somewhere else. As a home inspector too often I see aging parents being moved out by their kids because of the costs and difficulties in maintaining the home. Sometimes this move is to a retirement apartment. Recently, my neighbor of 25 years regrettably moved himself and his wife into a retirement home. They seem to be driving by or are out mingling in the neighborhood more now than when they actually lived next door. He tells me this ‘new’ place will never be their ‘home’ it’s merely a place to sleep and stay warm.

Home is where your memories are and it’s tough to leave them behind.

Most people feel attached to their homes and the town they are located in. It’s comfortable to know your neighbors and where to find the shops and other services so often used. Even though we complain about the weather, wherever we go, we will still complain about it. Home is where you heart and friends are. This is where you get your emotional support and comfort.

It costs too much to stay here.

Moving typically doesn’t save money. It costs a lot to sell your home and move your belongings. The new place will need new things and this adds to the cost of relocating. It doesn’t have to cost a lot to modify, freshen up or age proof your home. This may also require getting assistance with the maintenance. Regardless, it’s almost always less expensive to stay in the home where your heart is. Make an informed decision on the state of your home and the improvement options for the future. A good home inspector should be able to help identify and advise you on these safety and convenience improvements.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Are All Smoke Detectors Alike?

Most people assume a smoke detector is a smoke detector…this is not true.

In the mid 1970’s less than 10% of homes had a smoke detector; now over 90% do. Nevertheless, this dramatic increase in smoke detectors has had little impact on the risk of death by fire. Why? Some studies have indicated that many smoke detectors are either inoperable or have been disabled. Nuisance alarm activations are a major reason why detectors are disabled. National Fire Protection Association, NFPA, studies have indicated ionization alarms account for over 95% of all nuisance alarms.

Another reason is the age of the smoke detector. All smoke detectors should be replaced every 10 years.

What are the statistics on ionization vs. photoelectric smoke detectors?

62-1The majority of residential fire fatalities are due to smoke inhalation. Ionization detectors respond an average of 15 to 50 minutes slower than photoelectric. Some studies indicate they completely fail to work 25% of the time. However, ionization detectors respond faster in fast flame fires. Studies show 30 to 90 minutes quicker than photoelectric. Certainly, either smoke detector is better than none at all. Of course, a functioning smoke detector is most important. But if time and reliability are vital to our chances of surviving a smoldering fire, a photoelectric smoke detector is the best type to install in your home.

Less than 10% of all smoke detectors in homes are photoelectric.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Faulty Smoke Detectors

In a fire, the issue is time.

Minutes and many times seconds will make the difference between life and death. The combustible materials in our homes are different from the past and the technologies of smoke detectors have also changed. There are two types of smoke alarms, ionization and photoelectric. 90% of homes have ionization smoke detectors installed; about 5% are photoelectric and the rest have no alarm at all. The type of smoke alarm can be the difference between your family getting out of the house in time or not.

To better understand the importance of this; there are two types of residential fires, ‘fast flame and smoldering’. The vast majority of residential fire fatalities are due to smoke inhalation from a smoldering fire. And almost two-thirds of these fatalities occur at night while the occupants are sleeping. Photoelectric smoke detectors are by far the best for smoldering fires. Ionization detectors are very slow to respond to smoldering fires. Actually, Ionization detectors have proven to be significantly less reliable in both ‘fast flame and smoldering’ fires.

61-1What type of smoke detectors do you have in your home?

Daylight saving time is a great time to change the batteries in your smoke detectors. This year you should also examine the label on the back of your detectors. If the label says anything about radioactive material, Americium 241, or model number has an “I” then it is ionization. You should replace these detectors with photoelectric. More facts will be in next week’s blog.

All smoke detectors are not alike. Make sure you are protecting your family with the best fire alarm possible.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Is Some Moisture OK?

Home inspectors are often asked to render opinions on other professionals work. Many times we are challenged by licensed professionals, such as engineers, architects, and contractors, who feel differently about a problem.

Who is right?

Remember professional inspectors offer an OPINION of the condition of a building. This should be an informed opinion based upon knowledge and experience; but it is OUR opinion and not someone else’s. Sought after home inspectors are often in disagreement with others and we need to be firm in our conclusions if we are to best serve our clients.

Recently, I inspected a 7 year old commercial building that was in bank foreclosure. My first and primary concern was moisture intrusion. I began my analysis on the exterior of this concrete block and brick structure. Soon, I found a number of details that concerned me:

  • The roof valley drainage was restricted by a decorative facade
  • No rubber gaskets were on the nails of the roof to wall metal flashing
  • Many brick wall locations requiring weep ropes had none or were mortared over
  • The window and door steel lintels were painted but had already rusted

When I went inside I observed:

  • Water stains on the concrete floors and plaster ceilings
  • Water stains on the window sill frames

Shortly after relating these concerns to my client, I received an engineering report on the building. Evidently, the building had already been in litigation and this had not been disclosed to my client. The engineering report confirmed many of my findings.

The engineering firm designed a very thorough and costly solution to this complex problem. It included all new window, door, and roof flashing, as well as adding brick weep ropes. I recommended that these detailed repairs be completed to resolve the issue and keep the water out of the building. However, the engineer also said that this problem could be managed by water sealing the exterior bricks. In the end, the bank determined that sealing the face of the bricks was sufficient to correct the problem and resell the building.

My client looked to me to advise them on this matter. Was I OK that this moisture problem had been resolved with a thin coat of brick water sealer?

How do you feel about it?

Email me at doug@citiesinspection.com with your opinion and I will reply with mine.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor


How BAD Is It?

Determining the significance of a problem has always been challenging for home inspectors. For most inspectors, this can even become an insurmountable and unnerving task. The concern is if we misrepresent our findings either our liability will go through the roof or ours clients might not buy a home they really want. Neither of these is good. The quality of an inspector is directly proportionate to their ability to confidently tell a customer precisely how serious or how insignificant a problem is. Home inspectors can no longer get away with merely identifying the existence of a property defect; they must also state its severity and impact. So how does one acquire this wisdom and sureness?

The answer is quite simple; a home inspector must fully understand the primary purpose(s) of each component they are analyzing. The scope of each problem is based upon whether the component is performing its intended function or not. Let me give you 3 examples:

  1. A grounded outlet in a bath is safe; by adding a GFCI receptacle it would be safer. So the lack of a GFCI to a home inspector would be rather insignificant. Why…because the outlet is performing its intended purpose and is safe to use.
  2. The cedar siding on a home is properly installed and watertight; however, the paint is peeling. Because cedar is naturally decay resistant, the peeled paint is normal maintenance and low in significance to the inspector. The siding is performing is intended purpose which is to make the exterior walls water impervious.
  3. You’re inspecting a home with a front porch which has a severely sloped floor and the walls are pulling away from the main building. Very significant problem; why…because the existing foundation is not performing its intended function. A primary function of a foundation is to protect against earth movement and that clearly is not occurring.

So how BAD is it? Ask yourself, am I trying to tell my client the component…

  • Has potential for failure where a minor improvement is recommended (example #1)
  • Is in process of failure needing a repair (example #2)
  • Has failed requiring complete replacement (example #3)

The ability to communicate these findings in balance and with conviction will define you as either an average or a super inspector. So whether you are new to the real estate business or a seasoned agent is your current inspector capable of properly communicating to tell your clients?

Really, how bad is it?

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

For more insights on home inspection ‘Like’ our Cities Inspection Facebook page.

Go With What You Know

Approximately 90% of all structural building failures are caused by moisture. With the exception of the homeowner, moisture is the #1 enemy of the house. Unfortunately, moisture damage typically occurs in concealed spaces. This makes it difficult for most home inspectors to identify.

Good inspectors know there are 3 major elements that impact the risk of moisture intrusion.

  1. The more complex the design of the home the higher the risk.
  2. Poor drainage of water on or around the house increases the danger.
  3. Missing or improper flashing details can be a disaster.

Based upon the analysis of these 3 principles, an experienced inspector will determine whether the probability of concealed moisture damage is low, medium, or high. Regardless of what other ‘experts’ may say, home inspectors are required to communicate these observations to our client and make the appropriate recommendation.

Let me give you an example. Within the last year I inspected an Italian Renaissance home with an elaborate and complicated building design. This building included numerous room projections from the main structure, a 3rd level tower, and a traditional stucco exterior finish.

A flat roof deck was incorporated within the main hip roof structure that included a large skylight and an internal drainage system.

Flat Roof Deck & Skylight
Internal Roof Drain

The perimeter of all windows, doors, band boards, and corners had ‘bump out’ projections without any flashing. Doors onto the flat roofs were level with the deck and had no room for threshold flashing. The stucco was extended below grade without any drip screed flashing. And the roof did not include kickout flashing.

Bump Outs With No Flashing
No Kickout Flashing

Seemed like a no brainer…complex house design, poor roof drainage, and missing flashing details made this high risk. However, the home had been previously moisture tested by a very reputable contractor. The infra-red imaging and meter probing results were all negative. The ‘expert’ concluded no to low probability of moisture intrusion.

Should a professional home inspector change their conclusion and recommendation? Absolutely not, go with what you know. In this example my clients relied upon the moisture testing, moved into the home and quickly discovered the exterior wall structure was rotted out, the house was unsafe to live in and would require over a half a million dollars to fix.

Always remember…STAY WITH WHAT YOU KNOW…an inspector is paid for their opinion not someone else’s.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Visit and ‘Like’ our Cities Inspection Facebook page for more home updates.

Spring Water Problems

It’s time to start getting your home ready for spring.

Part 2:  Leaking roofs are the second biggest problem. 

Most roof leaks are caused by roof slope or metal flashing.  As a MN home inspector for the past 27 years, I have found these conditions are seldom addressed until becoming a problem.  What I mean is until a homeowner sees interior water stains they assume nothing is wrong.  This is seldom true.  Small amounts of invisible roof moisture can be more destructive than large water events, such as storm damage.  Why, because as water is absorbed into the wood cells, decay and fungal growth begins to take hold.  The longer this condition exists the more apt it is to develop into something substantial

Roof shingles are designed to shed water.  This means if there are obstructions in the free flow of water off the roof, it will most likely develop into a leak.  This is a design issue and many times the homeowner does not have a choice about the proper slope of their roof.  But they do have a choice about the type of material to install on the roof.  There are low slope and flat roof materials that are designed to be waterproofing membranes.  And when there is a design problem with the roof, the proper and more expensive materials should be used.  A good inspector can advise you on this matter.

Roof flashings are the most overlooked key component to keeping water out of the attic.  When re-roofing, contractors are not required to replace the metal flashings on the roof.  This is a poor choice.  Additionally, many low budget roofers are not qualified to install new flashings correctly.  As an inspector this is one of the biggest problems I see day in and day out.  When you see black tar on the roof, you know you have a problem.

This spring it may be a good time for you to check your roof…before it’s a problem.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

‘Like’ our Facebook page and Cities Inspection for more information on your home.

Spring Water Problems

It’s time to start getting your home ready for spring.

Part 1:  Wet basements are the biggest problem. 

Most basement water problems are caused by exterior landscaping and hardscaping.  As a MN home inspector for the past 27 years, I have found this condition is seldom repaired until it becomes a problem.  What I mean is until a homeowner sees water they assume nothing is wrong.  This is not true.  Actually, small amounts of basement moisture can be more destructive than large water events, such as flooding.  Why, because as water sits on the walls it deteriorates the concrete, fungal growth begins to take hold, and a force, hydrostatic pressure, begins to push the foundation in.  The longer these conditions exist the more apt they are to develop into something substantial.

When I inspect a home for a client, I always ask them, at the beginning of the inspection, what type of concerns they may have in purchasing this home.  Almost always in the top 3 is that they do not want moisture in the basement.  After inspecting over 19,000 homes, I would estimate over 85% have some sign of moisture in the basement.  That is such a high percentage, that prior to inspecting the basement, I can almost answer their initial concern.  Yes, this home has basement dampness.

9 out of 10 times the cause of a wet basement is poor slope around the foundation.  Typically, this is corrected by raising the grade and hard surfaces so they slope away from the basement.  It’s so simple.

This spring it may be a good time for you to check the slope around your house…before it’s a problem.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Check out our Facebook page and ‘Like’ Cities Inspection for additional home tips.

Radon Testing Protocols

Does your radon tester follow the EPA guidelines?

In a real estate transaction most radon tests are performed by the home inspector. There is nothing wrong with that, but there is the assumption that they are doing it ‘right’. This may or may not be true. The proper testing protocol you should expect is the following:

  • Homeowner contacted to discuss the test and EPA rules.
  • The house closed up, doors and windows shut, a minimum of 24 hours before test.
  • Set the monitor at the lowest potential habitable level of the home.
    •    Approximately 3’ to 6’ off the floor.
    •    Centrally located and not on outside walls.
    •    3’ from a furnace supply or return air register.
    •    6’ from a fireplace.
  • A notice describing the do’s and don’ts left on the kitchen counter.
  • A notice at all entry doors reminding people to keep the doors closed.
  • Short term tests should be between 48 and 72 hours long.

EPA guidelines are not regulated by the state of MN.

Unless you are certain about who is doing your radon test, you should ask for a copy of their certification and a document verifying the monitor has been calibrated within the last year. An electronic tamper-proof monitor is the best way to assure accurate test results.

A faulty test puts the home’s occupants at high risk.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

‘Like’ our Facebook page and Cities Inspection will keep you informed on a radon inspections in MN.

Controlling Radon Gas

In Existing Homes:

After testing for radon and if the level exceeds 4.0 picocuries, the next step is to begin mitigation. You should look for a ‘certified mitigation contractor’. They will have completed the EPA required training and testing. In a nutshell mitigation for an existing home includes the following:

  • Cover all exposed earth with a 6 mil poly and seal all edges.
  • Caulk all cracks and openings in the floor slab.
  • Put a 3” pipe in the earth, thru the floor slab, or in a sump.
  • Install the pipe inside or outside the house.
  • Extend the pipe a 12” above the surface of the roof.
  • Pipe must terminate minimum of 10’ from a window
  •  Pipe must terminate 10’ from another home.
  • Re-test and verify a level of 4.0 picocuries or less.

In New MN Homes:

There is no preliminary testing. The state requires either a passive or active system that consists of the following construction requirements:

Below the floor slab a minimum of 4” of gas –permeable aggregate or sand.

  • Cover the sand or aggregate with a minimum 6 mil poly overlapped a minimum of 12”.
  • All penetrations thru or joints in the slab must be caulked.
  • Hollow core blocks must have at finished grade a solid course of blocks.
  • Exterior walls of foundation must be dampproofed below grade.
  • Ducts below the slab must be continuous or sealed.
  • A plumbing tee inserted below the floor slab and poly.
  • A minimum 3” pipe extended thru the building and marked as radon pipe.
  • Pipe must terminate 12” above the roof and a minimum of 10’ from a window or another house.
  • A fan (active) is optional.  No fan (passive) or radon testing is required.

Radon gas is real…this hazard should be taken seriously.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

‘Like’ Cities Inspection’s Facebook page for more great tips on things to watch for in your home!

No More Debate…Radon Kills

Radon mitigation is part of the MN State Building Code. 

What does it mean when the MN State Building Code is modified to include radon mitigation methods as a requirement to build a house? Building codes are ‘minimum’ safety standards for construction. This says a lot about how dangerous radon gas is. It is no longer a scientific theory, it is a reality. Most of MN is designated as having radon amount levels greater than the EPA standard 4.0 picocuries. And did you know the EPA standard may soon be lowered to 2.0 picocuries.

Radon disclosure is part of the MN Real Estate Disclosure Statement.

There is misinformation about how radon gas travels. Too many people think that if their neighbor has a low radon level in their home it means they must too. It doesn’t work that way. Radon concentrations are a combination of soil decay, construction methods and materials used in building each home, and the occupant’s use of the house. Together these factors contribute to elevated radon levels. For these reasons and more, MN now requires disclosure of any radon testing that has occurred in a home being offered for sale. Unfortunately, there are no rules regulating radon testers; that part is still buyer beware.

Radon testing is not regulated in the state of MN. 

Make sure your test is performed by a nationally ‘certified’ technician using the highest quality, calibrated, and tamper-proof electronic monitor.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

Radon Gas is a Proven Danger

January is National Radon Awareness Month.

Radon gas and real estate don’t mix well. The more energy efficient we make our houses the greater the risk of developing radon induced lung cancer. The radon gas health concern is no longer debatable; it is the #1 cause of lung cancer for non-smokers and the #2 cause for smokers. MN homeowners, real estate agents, builders, and home inspectors should do all they can to identify, assess, and resolve this ever present threat to our families.

Most people know that radon gas is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs naturally in the decay of soil below all houses throughout the U.S. What most people don’t know is the southern and central portion of MN is designated by the national building code as Zone 1 having the highest potential for elevated radon levels in the basement, main and upper levels of our homes. Because our senses are not aware of its presence, this danger has long been overlooked and ignored.

Times have changed.

Some have argued the rapid increase in radon awareness is attributable to the “me” generations X and Y concern for themselves and their children. Maybe so, but there is a huge increase in ‘boomers and grey’s’ having their homes tested too. A possible reason could be their concern for children and grandchildren. Or maybe everyone just wants to live a longer and healthier life. For little money and inconvenience everyone can have their homes tested for radon. It takes only 2 days and all you have to do is keep your windows closed. That’s why January through March, the heating season, is the best months to perform a test.

It might be time to have your home tested!

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor


There’s a Mouse in the House

Mice are colonizers…so it is very unlikely that you have only one mouse!

If you give a lonely mouse the opportunity, through breeding, you will very soon have 100 mice. Controlling this problem begins with recognizing how you discovered this furry creature.

Did you see it?  Then place a peanut butter baited trap alongside the wall where you saw the mouse.  Alongside the wall is important, because mice do not voluntarily come out into open spaces. Another more aggressive food is poison bait. These baits are very effective because mice usually carry them back to the colony. You must however be very careful and certain that you are placing the baits in a place where they will not be picked up by humans or animal pets. If you have children or pets, you would be well advised not to use poison baits.

Did you hear it scratching in the walls? If you heard scratching in the wall, remove the base trim at the point of the scratching, drill a hole just above the base plate (that is the horizontal board on which the wall is built) and pour poison bait, containing warfarin, into the cavity. Using warfarin based bait is important; otherwise you will have the smell of decomposition after the mice have died. Close the hole with a rubber stopper, don’t use cork, because mice consider cork a tasty meal.  Replace the base trim and the mice will soon be gone.

Did it chew through a food package in the pantry? Do not remove damaged food packages immediately. Place a trap, baited with peanut butter, right alongside the hole in the package. You may not like leaving the damaged food package in place because of the hygienic implications. But think about it for a moment; if the package is moved mice will be scampering over all your other food while they are looking for their supper. Leave the trap for two days and then cleanup and sterilize the area.

Did you see droppings? Mouse droppings are a sign of a social meeting place. So, set a peanut butter baited trap in among the droppings and you will catch you a mouse. Don’t bother setting another trap in the same place because mice are smart, they will get the message.

Right now mice are looking for a warm spot to live and start a family.

It is no accident when a mouse gets into the house! To keep mice out of your house, you must seal up every possible entry point. These may be hard to find because they can be as small as a ¼” crack or a hole in the wall the size of a dime. Sometimes missing window and door weather-stripping or caulking is the culprit. More often, look where air conditioner, clothes dryer, plumbing and electrical pipes come through the wall.

Mice are crafty contortionists, so be patient, finding these entry points can be challenging!

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

‘Pops’ Rob Leslie
Kaplan Professionals, Retired


Follow Cities Inspection’s on Facebook for additional homeowner tips.

The Essentials of Sump Pumps

Incorrect terminology puts a real estate agent or homeowner at high risk.

When putting a home up for sale there are many details that are disclosed, sometimes, in a mandated seller disclosure report and other times for marketing promotions. If these features are overstated or not described correctly, liability and lawsuit risks will rise. There is no greater concern in purchasing a home than a wet basement. As a MN home inspector I too often see water control systems improperly portrayed. So let’s get the vocabulary and description correct.


The basket or pit that goes into the floor; it is typically about 3’ deep. In extremely high water table situations they can be up to 6’ deep. The sump is required to have a cover that is screwed down to protect kids and pets from drowning.

Beaver system

A plastic or metal diverter that sits on top of the basement floor slab. It is about 4” high and is glued to the foundation on the top and the floor slab at the bottom. Holes are drilled into the blocks allowing them drain and the diverter channels the water to either a floor drain or sump. This is not a drain tile system. It is an inexpensive, non-invasive, low quality method of managing wet basement walls. If the diverter glue fails the basement gets wet.

Drain tile

This is either a continuous plastic pipe with holes or clay pipe with open joints. Typically the pipe goes around the entire perimeter of the foundation below the floor slab and alongside the footing. Drain tile can be installed on the interior or exterior of the foundation and the pipes terminate in the sump.


This is an electrical pump that sits in the sump often called a sump pump. There is also battery pumps used to back-up the electrical pump if the power goes out.

Why is this important?

Can a house have just a sump? Sure, but this is not a drain tiled basement. It is just a basket in the floor. Is the beaver system the same as drain tile? No the beaver system is above the basement floor and the drain tile is below. A beaver system is an inferior method of water control. Can a basement be partially drain tiled or beavered? Yes and this is more common than you would imagine. To call a basement drain tiled you are implying the entire basement and that may not be true. Can a pump be discharged into the laundry tub? No sump pumps must be drain into the city storm drain or onto the yard. There is a stiff fine if caught dumping the water into the homes plumbing system. Does having a sump pump mean the basement is drain tiled? Absolutely not.

If you don’t know what you have, don’t claim it is something it might not be. That would make you easy pickings for a lawsuit.

Doug Hastings
MN Home Inspector, Minneapolis & St. Paul
ASHI Certified Inspector, ACI
Kaplan University, Home Inspection Lead Instructor

‘Pops’ Rob Leslie
Kaplan Professionals, Retired


Follow Cities Inspection’s on Facebook for more home care tips.